## Thursday, October 26, 2017

### Circuit Schematic Full adder using NAND or NOR logic

Robometricschool. - This is one of the application of NAND and NOR logic to build full adder for you. Before you can build full adder with combining two half adder using logic circuit.

In here we will show you two circuit schematic of full adder using NAND and NOR logic look like shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 below.

Circuit Schematic

 Figure 1. Circuit Schematic Full adder using NAND logic (Source: Circuitstoday.com)

 Figure 2. Circuit Schematic Full adder using NOR logic (Source: Circuitstoday.com)

Component Parts

• NAND Logic
• NOR Logic

Description

Accordingly Circuitstoday site that published this circuit describe that o understand the working of a ripple carry adder completely, you need to have a look at the full adder too. Full adder is a logic circuit that adds two input operand bits plus a Carry in bit and outputs a Carry out bit and a sum bit.. The Sum out  (Sout) of a full adder is the XOR of input operand bits A, B and the Carry in (Cin) bit.  Truth table and schematic of a 1 bit Full adder is shown below

There is a simple trick to find results of a full adder. Consider the second last row of the truth table, here the operands are 1, 1, 0 ie  (A, B, Cin). Add them together ie 1+1+0 = 10 . In binary system,  the number order is 0, 1, 10, 11……. and so the result of 1+1+0 is 10 just like we get 1+1+0 =2 in decimal system. 2 in the decimal system corresponds to 10 in the binary system. Swapping the result “10” will give S=0 and Cout = 1 and the second last row is justified.

## Tuesday, October 24, 2017

### Arduino Projects: Water Level Indicator Using Arduino Nano and Ultrasonic Sensor

Robometricschool. - This is one of the microcontroller project circuit to build water level indicator using Arduino and also ultrasonic sensor. This circuit very suitable when you want to indicate the water level this time.

In here we will give you the global description about the project of water level indicator using Arduino Nano and also ultrasonic sensor the last we will allow you to read more this project from original source.

Electronic Design

 Arduino Water Level Indicator (Source: Circuitstoday.com)

Component Parts
• Arduino Nano ---> 2
• Ultrasonic Sensor HC-SR04 ----> 1
• LCD 16x2 ----> 1
• Preset 10K ----> 1
• Switch DPDT (PCB Mount) ---->2
• Battery 9 Volt ----> 2
• Battery Holder -----> 2

Description

This is Arduino project water level indicator using Arduino Nano and ultrasonic sensor for you in this time. Accordingly Circuitstoday site describe that Wireless Water Level Indicator Using Ultrasonic sensor & Arduino is an amazing and very useful project. The objective of this project is to notify the user the amount of water that is present in the overhead water tank. This project can be further enhanced to control the water level in the tank by turning it ON, when the water level is LOW, and turning it OFF when the water level is HIGH. Thus, the Arduino water level indicator helps in preventing wastage of water in overhead tank. This project is wireless so, it is easy to install and it can work up to 100 meters.

In this project two circuits are used: a transmitter circuit and a receiver circuit. The transmitter circuit makes use of an ultrasonic sensor to measure the water level in terms of distance. This data is sent to the receiver circuit using RF communication. The water level is shown in terms of percentage on a 16×2 LCD module, which is connected to receiver circuit. Read more Here.

## Wednesday, October 18, 2017

### Solar Project At Retired Coal-Fired Power Plant Is Celebrated by Paul Tuthil

Robometricschool. - This is one information for you about the solar power with the title Solar Project At Retired Coal-Fired Power Plant Is Celebrated that written by Paul Tuthil and published in WAMC site.

 Image Courtesy of http://wamc.org/

One of the largest solar power projects in Massachusetts is being constructed on the property of a former coal-burning power plant in Holyoke.

More than 17,000 solar panels are being installed in the shadow of the smokestack of the former Mount Tom Power Station. The nearly 6 megawatt solar farm should come online in January.  The old power plant, which operated from 1960-2014, and the smokestack – a landmark for people traveling up and down I-91 -- will be demolished in the spring.

The solar panels are being installed on 22 acres of the 128-acre Mt. Tom Power Station property along the Connecticut River. At a ceremonial groundbreaking Thursday, ENGIE North America President and CEO Frank Demaille said the project is a “landmark” for the international company as it transitions from large centralized power plants to local low-carbon emission energy production.

Holyoke Gas & Electric has signed an agreement to purchase all the electricity produced at the solar farm. It is enough to power 1,000 homes.  James Lavelle, the manager of the municipal power company, said the terms of the agreement will help to maintain some of the lowest electric rates in the region.

And now you can read more about the Solar Project At Retired Coal-Fired Power Plant Is Celebrated by Paul Tuthil from original source using link HERE

## Thursday, October 12, 2017

### Microcontroller Projects: RFID based Attendance System Circuit using 8051

Robometricschool. - This is one of the microcontroller project circuit to build RFID based attendance system using 8051. This circuit very suitable when you want to control some unit using RFID.

In here we will give you the RFID based attendance system circuit schematic, component parts, and also the description of this circuit and the last we will allow you to read more this project from original source.

Circuit Schematic

 Image Courtesy of www.electronicshub.org

Component Parts

• AT89C51 Microcontroller
• AT89C51 Programming Board
• 11.0592 MHz Quartz Crystal
• 2 x 33pF Ceramic Capacitors
• 2 x 10KΩ Resistor
• 10µF Electrolytic Capacitor
• 2 x Push Button
• 16 x 2 LCD Display
• 3 x 1KΩ Resistor
• 10KΩ POT
• RFID Tags or Cards
• Connecting Wires

Description

This is microcontroller project RFID based attendance system using 8051 for you in this time. Accordingly Electronichub site describe that the main components of the project are 8051 based microcontroller, 16×2 LCD, and RFID reader module.
First we’ll see the basic connections with respect to the microcontroller. Here, we’ll need to connect a crystal, a reset circuit and external access.

To use the on-chip oscillator, an 11.0592 MHz quartz crystal is connected to pins 18 (XTAL2) and 19 (XTAL1) of the microcontroller. Two 33pF ceramic capacitors are connected from the crystal to ground.

The reset on the 8051 microcontroller is active high i.e. upon applying a high pulse to RST pin, the microcontroller will reset. A 10KΩ resistor is connected from the RST (Pin 9) of the microcontroller to ground.

A 10µF electrolytic capacitor is connected between the positive supply and RST pin. A push button is connected across the capacitor.

The External Access pin (Pin 31) is connected to positive supply using a 10KΩ resistor. This completes the basic connections with respect to microcontroller. For more information about this microcontroller project RFID based attendance system using 8051 you can read more HERE.

## Monday, October 9, 2017

### Construction under way for 8,000-plus-panel solar project by Marcus Wolf

Robometricschool. - This is one information for you about the solar power with the title Construction under way for 8,000-plus-panel solar project that written by Marcus Wolfand and published in Watertown Daily Times site.

 Image Courtesy of www.watertowndailytimes.com

Construction is underway for a Colorado-based energy company’s more than 8,000-panel solar array on 10 acres on County Route 67.

Tony Alvarez, a superintendent with the manufacturing and installation company TerraSmart, said his crew has been installing the wracking that will hold 8,680 ground-mounted photovoltaic solar panels for about a month. The Florida-based installation company expects its workers to finish installing the wracking and the panels for the 2,000-kilowatt project, named Brookside Solar, within the next couple of weeks, Mr. Alvarez said.
“The only times we stop is thunderstorms or lightning,” Mr. Alvarez said. “It’s coming along.”

Brookside Solar, owned by AES Distributed Energy, Boulder, Colo., will be built on about 10 acres of a 221.7-acre property owned by Teddy A. Sutton and Lorraine LeRoux at 24805 County Route 67.

Kaleigh T. Pitcheralle, construction manager for M+W Group, which oversees the construction and installation of Brookside Solar, said she expects construction to conclude by November, adding that many of the ground components have already been installed, including the central inverters and conduits. New utility poles had to be installed for the solar project to interconnect to National Grid’s power grid, and Ms. Pitcheralle said workers also needed to build a gravel road to access the property.

“All of our underground is complete,” she said, adding that they are waiting for combiner boxes.

Michael J. Brennan, a project manager with M+W Group, said the array will send the energy through wires connected to the panels as direct current electricity to the two central inverters, which will then convert the electricity to an alternating current.

And now you can read more about the Construction under way for 8,000-plus-panel solar project by Marcus Wolf from original source using link HERE

## Monday, October 2, 2017

### Microcontroller Project: RFID Based Attendance System Based on ATMega 8

Robometricschool. - This is one of the application of microcontroller ATMega 8 from ATMEL for building RFID based attendance system for you. It is seem be nice when you can build this RFID project system yourself.

In here beside we will give you the description, circuit schematic, and other component needed, we also will give you to you to read more about the complete project from other source.

Circuit Schematic

Component Parts

• ATMEGA8 Microcontroller.
• RFID Tags.
• LCD display

Description

Accordingly Electronicshub site that published this circuit describe that RFID based attendance system has very simple circuit design. The RFID Reader has transmit and receive pins. These pins are connected to the transmit and receive pins of the micro controller i.e. PD0 and PD1 pins of microcontroller.VCC is connected to 5v and GND is connected to ground.

If pins are not available to the module, connect it using DB9 connector. PD0 pin is receiver and PD1 pin is transmitter.

RFID module communicates with the controller using USART, where USART is a communication protocol. USART is acronym for Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous Receive and Transmit.

Serial data can be transmitted from RFID module to microcontroller using UART. ATmega8 microcontroller has USART registers internally. One should declare these registers in order to transmit or receive data serially.

LCD display is connected to Port B of the microcontroller. Interfacing of LCD in 4 bit mode is in to microcontroller which is shown in the circuit diagram. D4 – D7 data pins are connected to the PB0 – PB3 pins of microcontroller.