Sunday, March 30, 2014

Introduction of Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) Cortex M3

Robometricschool. - Maybe you are still foreign with the term of ARM microprocessor. It is because that ARM has familiar in 2007. In 2007, approximately 98% of the one billion mobile phones sold use at least one ARM processor. And in 2009, ARM processors dominate about 90% of the overall market 32-bit RISC processor. ARM processors are used in various fields such as general electronics, including PDAs, mobile phones, media players, music players, handheld game consoles, calculators and computer peripherals such as hard disk drives and routers.

Figure 1. Conexant ARM (wikipedia indonesia)

The History of ARM Microprocessor 

ARM is a processor with 32bit RISC instruction set architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) developed by ARM Holdings. ARM stands for Advanced RISC Machine from (previously known as the Acorn RISC Machine stands). At first ARM processor developed for the PC (Personal Computer) by Acorn Computers, prior to Microsoft's dominance of Intel x86 processors in IBM PC compatible cause Acorn Computers insolvent.

After insolvent, Apple Computers (now Apple Inc.) and VLSI Technology Inc. Acorn Computer purchase of intellectual property, and established ARM Ltd.. ARM Ltd. and then proceed to develop the project Acorn Computer processor with a 32bit RISC architecture that is simple and energy efficient. 

Processor developed by ARM Ltd. was not in demand by the PC manufacturers, the reason is not compatible with the Intel x86 architecture. ARM Ltd then decided not to produce ARM processors, but the license for the design of the processor combined with ASIC (Application Specific IC) that require an embedded controller (eg, a printer controller, washing machine controller, video decoder controller, ethernet controller hub / router, and so on ).

Now, ARM processors are also produced by a variety of semiconductor companies as a separate microprocessor (formerly ARM processor always embedded with ASIC ) or microcontroller ( with a variety of features required reduction microprocessor ).

Companies that used or are currently using ARM processor license covers AlcatelLucent , Apple Inc. . , Atmel , Broadcom , Cirrus Logic , Digital Equipment Corporation ( DEC ) , Freescale , Intel ( through the acquisition of DEC ) , LG , Marvell Technology Group , Microsoft , NEC , Nuvoton , Nvidia , NXP (formerly Philips ) , Oki , Qualcomm , Samsung , Sharp , STMicroelectronics , SYMBIOS Logic , Texas Instruments , VLSI Technology , Yamaha and ZiiLABS.

Figure 2. Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) Families (Kelas Mikrokontroler)

A wide variety of well-known ARM -based controllers include DEC StrongARM ( used Intel processors for PDAs ) , Marvell XScale ( design Marvell bought Intel's Xscale ) , Nintendo ( Gameboy processor , DSi , and 3DS ) , Nvidia Tegra , STEricsson Nomadik , Qualcomm Snapdragon , Texas Instruments OMAP product line , the Samsung Hummingbird and the Apple A4.

3 Kinds or Types of ARM Microprocessor

There are 3 kinds or types of ARM microprocessor as likes: Classic ARM Processor, Embedded Cortex Processor, and Application Cortex Processor.

  1. Classic ARM Processor. ARM classic is ARM processor family that was first released by ARM Ltd. (now ARM). Classical ARM processor is ideal for users who want to use the technology has been tested in the market. Prosesorprosesor has been used for a wide range of electronic products for many years. Electronic product designers choose prosesorprosesor is guaranteed to have the support of the ecosystem and vast resources, the minimum level of integration difficulties, and decrease design time. In the classic consists of ARM ARM 7, ARM9, ARM 11.
  2. Embedded Cortex Processor. The processor in the Cortex-M family series has been developed specifically for microcontroller domain, where the demand for speed, time determination process, and interrupt management along with the minimum number of gate silicon (silicon broad minimum processor determines the final price) and minimum power consumption is in great demand. Examples of applications the Cortex-M processor is a microcontroller and smart sensors. The processor in the Cortex-R series family, by contrast, was developed specifically for the purpose of real-time depth, where the minimum power consumption and interrupt the predictable nature balanced with outstanding performance and strong compatibility with existing platforms. Examples of applications the Cortex-R processors are ABS (Automotive Braking Systems), electronic controller gears, hydraulic, and machine otomotif.Dalam Embedded ARM Cortex M0 consists of, Cortex-M1, Cortex-M3, and Cortex R4.
  3. Application Cortex Processor. Processors of this type was developed for applications that require high computing power (the average frequency of 2GHz processing), such as netbooks, mobile Internet devices, smartphones, and other application-lain.Dalam ARM Cortex A5 consists of, Cortex A8, Cortex A9. Once we know the various types of ARM family, then we can easily determine the type of which we will use. Because the needs of the author is currently developing an embedded system, the processor is selected from embedde ARM cortex processor types, namely Cortex M3.

ARM Cortex M3

ARM Cortex-M3 processor is the ARM Cortex family of processors embedded microcontroller applications to replace 8/16bit. The advantages of the ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller compared 8/16bit located at: 

  1. Higher computing capability for the same working frequency 
  2. Power consumption is less than or equal 
  3. Prices are cheaper or the same 
  4. Compatible with other ARM Cortex-M (ARM Cortex-M0, Cortex-M4). 

Applications that are compiled for the ARM Cortex-M3 can be run on the ARM Cortex-M other. It is useful for hardware upgrades, without removing the software that has been done.

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