Sunday, October 6, 2013

Capacitor as the Passive Electronic Component

Robometricschool. - One kinds of passive electronic component is Capacitor. There are many functions of capacitor when this component used in electronic circuit schematic. In here we will discuss to you about the capacitor component, and we hope you will get global information when you read this capacitor component.

A. Description 

Capacitors are electronic components that can store electrical charge. Structure of a capacitor made of 2 pieces of metal plates separated by a dielectric material. Dielectric materials are commonly known as air vacuum, ceramic, glass and others. If both ends of the metal plate was given voltage, the positive charges will accumulate on one leg and a metal electrode at the same time the negative charges accumulated on the metal tip of the other. 

Positive charge can not flow toward the negative pole and the opposite end of the negative charge could not lead to the end of the positive pole because material separated by a non-electrically conductive. Electric charge is "stored" in the absence of the conductive ends of the legs. In the wild the capacitor phenomenon occurs when the accumulation of positive charges and negative in the cloud. 

Capacitor is a passive electronic component that is often used in the design of a system that serves to block DC current, filter, and electrical energy storage. In it there are 2 pieces of electrode plates facing each other and separated by an insulator, whereas the material used as an insulator called a dielectric.

When the DC voltage of the capacitor is given electrical energy stored on each electrode. During capacitor charging, current flows. The current flow will stop when the capacitor has been full. What distinguishes each capacitor is the dielectric. The following are the types of capacitor used in this design.

B. Kinds of Capacitor

1. Electrolyte Capacitors

Figure 1. Electrolyte Capacitors

Electrolytic Capacitor Electrolytic Capacitor  is made of aluminum which uses a thin membrane oxidation. The main characteristics of the Electrolytic Capacitor is a difference in polarity on both legs. Based on these characteristics then it must be careful in the installation on the circuit, not to reverse.

If the polarity is reversed it will be damaged even "explode". Usually this type of capacitor used in power supply circuits. This capacitor can not be used in high frequency circuits. Usually the working voltage of the capacitor is calculated by multiplying the power supply voltage by 2. For example, the capacitor will be provided with a power supply voltage of 5 volts, meaning capacitors selected must have a minimum working voltage 2 x 5 = 10 Volts.

2. Ceramic Capacitor

Figure 2. Ceramic Capacitor

Ceramic capacitors (ceramic capacitor) is a type of non-polar capacitors have no polarity, which means, for example, the positive and negative poles. Ceramic capacitor is used as a filter or ignition on radio waves. Ceramic capacitor has a thin round shape and capacity is calculated in units of pico farad (pF). Working voltage (voltage) from 25 Volt, 50 Volt, 200 Volt, 400 Volt, up to thousands of volts. Rated capacity in ceramic capacitors, there are written directly on the body and some are wearing calculate with.Volt code.

Capacitor using titanium acid barium for dielectric. Therefore it is not constructed like a coil of these components can be used in high frequency circuits. Usually used to pass high frequency signals to ground heading. This capacitor is not good for analog circuits, because it can change the shape of the signal. This type has no polarity and only available with capacitor value is very small compared to the electrolyte capacitor.

C. Value of Capacitors

To find the value of the capacitor is usually done by looking at the number / code is stamped on the capacitor body. For electrolytic capacitor type is easy, because the capacitance value has been clearly stated in the body, whereas for ceramic capacitors and some other types of encoded values​​. 

The code usually consists of 4 digits, where the first 3 digits are the last digit number and a letter that stated tolerance. For the first 3 digits the last digit serves to determine 10nF, the value of nF (nano Farad) can be seen in the following table.

Table 1. Capacitors Value


For example, a capacitor 474J code written on the body, meaning the value of the capacitance is 47 + 104 = 470,000 pF = 0.47μF while 5% tolerance. To be remembered in the search for the value of the units in pF capacitor was (Pico Farad).


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