Saturday, January 5, 2013

Know the Types of Sensors and Transducers in Robot

Figure 1. Pressure Sensor and Tranducer

Robometricschool. In this time we will continue to discuss about robot topic. in this posting, we will discuss about sensors and transducers in robot

As we know that The sensor is a very important tool in design a robot. With this sensor the robot can perceive the physical scale from outside the robot to be processed so that eventually robots can perform certain movements. 

The sensor is a device that accepts input in the form of a quantity / physical signal which converts it into Wholesale / other signals are routed to the controller. The sensor is also defined as the equipment used to convert a physical quantity into electrical quantities that can be analyzed with a particular electrical circuit.  

The sensor is used to measure the magnitude of something. The sensor is a type of transducer that is used to change a variety of mechanical, magnetic, thermal, and chemical beam voltage / electric current. Sensors are categorized by measuring and plays an important role in the modern manufacturing process control. Sensors provide equivalent eyes, ears, nose, tongue to be the brain of the microprocessor industry automation system.

Meanwhile, the transducer is a device that can convert energy from one form other. Transducer can be divided into two classes of transducer input and output transducers. Transducers convert electrical input convert non-electrical energy, such as sound or light into electricity. electrical power output works on the opposite order. The transducer converts electrical energy in the form of non-electric energy.

Sensors and Transducers in Robotics 

The development of sensors and transducers so fast according automation technology advances, the more complex an automation system is built, the more types of sensors are used. In an automated system is required a control system is reliable, and is highly dependent on the use of sensors and transducers. Field Robotics is an example of the application of complex automation systems, sensors used here can be categorized into two types of sensors, namely: (D Sharon, et al, 1982). 

1. Internal sensors, 

the sensors mounted on the body of the robot.Internal sensors is needed to examine the position, velocity, and acceleration of various mechanical connections on the robot, and the internal part of the robot.

2. External sensors, 

the sensors are mounted outside the body of the robot. External sensor is needed for two reasons, namely:  

a. For security. 

The definition for security "to include security robot, the robot of protection against damage caused themselves, as well as security for the equipment, components, and people in the environment where the robot is used. 

b.To guide. 

Now how does the sensor to guide or tour?. Categories is very broad, but the following example will give consideration.In accordance with the function of the sensor as a detector signal and the signal gives the following information to the next system, the role and function of the sensor will be followed by the transducer. Because of the link between the sensor and the transducer so closely the selection of the proper and appropriate transducer is also noteworthy. 

Classification of Sensors and Transducer in a Robot 

1. Classification Sensor. 

In general, based on the function and use of sensors can be classified into 3 parts: 

a. sensor thermal (heat). 

Thermal sensor is a sensor used to detect the symptoms of changes in heat / temperature / temperature dimensional objects in a specific space or dimension. For example; bimetal, thermistors, thermocouples, RTD, photo transistors, photo diodes, photo multiplier, photovoltaic, infrared phyrometer, hygrometer, etc.

b. mechanical sensors.  

Mechanical sensor is a sensor that detects changes in mechanical motion, such as displacement or shift or position, straight and circular motion, pressure, flow, level, etc.. Example: strain gauge, deferential linear variable transformer (LVDT), proximity, potentiometers, load cell, Bourdon tube, etc.

c. optical sensors (light). 

Optic or light sensor is a sensor that detects changes in light from the light source, the light reflection or refraction of light hit object or room.Example: photo cell, photo transistor, photo diode, photo voltaic, photo multiplier, optical pyrometer, etc.

2. Classification of transducers 

Classification of transducers according to William DC, 1993, can be divided into two general categories:

a. Self-generating transducer (transducer generator itself).  

Self-generating transducer is a transducer which requires only one source energy. example: piezo electric, termocouple, photovoltatic, thermistor, etc. Characteristic of transducer is an electrical energy produced from the transducer directly. In this case, the transducer acts as a voltage source.

b. External power transducer (transducer power from the outside). 

External power transducer is a transducer that requires some outside energy to produce an output. Example: RTD (resistance thermal detector), Strain gauge, LVDT (linear variable differential transformers), Potentiometer, NTC, etc.


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