Friday, January 4, 2013

A Great Robotic History in the World

Figure 1. Asimo Robot Development History

Robometricschool. - Before we discuss lot of robot, firstly we must know what is robot and robot history. So in this season will discuss about A Great Robotic History in the World.

When we tell about robot, we must know 'What is a Robot'. The word robot first introduced by a Czech writer named Karel in 1921. The word robot comes from the word ROBOTA that meaning Workers Myself, The word robot was introduced to the public in play RUR (Rossums Universal Robots), published in 1920.

Other definition said that robot is an automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in human form. Perhaps a less precise definition because there are some robots that are shaped like a human or part of human organs and replace the jobs previously done by humans though most goals is the creation of robots for that. Due to the fact that robots have successfully created and later became famous, it is not a robot that resembles the shape of the human body or parts of organs. For example, the robot dog Aibo ERS-210 made ​​by SONY corporation.

So you can make conclude about what is robot from description above. There are still many definition about what is robot according different perspective. Let's to continue our discussion about history of robot in the world.

Developing history of robot firstly come from biology field and novel in 18th century, not from electronic field.  Biological scientists at the time wanted to create a creature that has characteristics such that they want and what obey what they tell, and until now the creatures they created were never materialize into reality, but rather a matter of the novels and dramatizations stage and film.

New nineteenth century robot was developed by engineers, by then armed with mechanical expertise to make their mechanical clock making artificial human doll that can move on the part of his body.

In 1920 robot developed from science of electronics, more specific the branch of electronics disciplines study the automatic control engineering, but in those days computers are major component a robot used to refineries data inputs from sensors and control actuators yet ability commutation has a computer faster than the physical size during ITRU still quite large.

To make easy our description about history of robot technology period, we can conclude into several year like bellow:
  1. The year 270 BC, Ctesibus, in ancient Greece has made organs and water clocks that can make certain movements.
  2. In 1818, Mary Shelley wrote the novel "Frankenstein" was famous and creepy. The story of the man who was created by Dr. Frankenstein.
  3. 1921, the term "robot" was first used in a play called "RUR" or "Rossum's Universal Robots" written by the author of the Republic, Karel Capek. Simply put tell about human drama that makes the robot and the robot eventually kills man who made it.
  4. In 1941, science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word "robot" to describe the technology of robots and predicted the emergence of a powerful robot industry.
  5. In 1942, Asimov wrote "Runaround", a story about robots and introduce "Three Laws of Robotics".
  6. In 1948, Cybernetics ", an article about the influence on the results of artificial intelligence published by Norbert Wiener. At that time it was also a pioneer of robotic technology in the UK, William Grey Walter creates a simple robot, named Elmer and Elsie that mimic lifelike behavior using electronics.
  7. George Devol and Joseph Engleberger creating a programmable robot arm for the first time and created the term Universal Automation for the first time as well.
  8. In 1956, George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the company producing the world's first robot. This year is also a form of electronic robot squirrel and named Squee created.
  9. 1959, Computer Assisted Manufacturingg Servomechanisms been demonstrated in the laboratory at MIT.
  10. In 1961, the first industrial robot was exhibited at the General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. The robot is called Unimate.
  11. In 1963, artificial robotic arm controlled by computer was first designed. Arm (arm) robot is designed as a tool for people with disabilities to complete the six joints that provide the flexibility of a human arm.
  12. In 1965, the first manufacture of advanced system and called DENDRAL. The program is designed to execute the accumulated knowledge of subject experts.
  13. In 1968, Marvin Minsky makes tentacle arms called Octopus.
  14. In 1969, the manufacturing arm of Stanford electrically driven. Robot arm is controlled by a computer.
  15. In 1970, the appearance of the robot Shakey is touted as the first mobile robot controlled by artificial intelligence. The robot was created by SRI International.
  16. In 1974, the design of a robotic arm that works based on feedback and pressure sensors. The robot, called by the name of Silver Arm is used for the assembly of the components in the industry.
  17. In 1979, the first time demonstrated the ability of a robot passing in a room full of chairs. The robot, named Stanford can avoid bumping into chairs placed randomly in the room. The robot is equipped with cameras that relay images to the computer field passes. Furthermore, computers calculate the object distance and the barriers that exist in the field. 

To make our information increase, we also must know about history of  japan robot. It is because japan is one of country that called identical of robot country. So we think need to take information about Japan robot history.

1. Gakutensoku Robot

The first robot that Japan made is Gakutensoku. Gakutensoku, the first robot built in Japan, was created in Osaka in 1929. This robot was designed and manufactured by biologist Makoto Nishimura (1883-1956).

Gakutensoku can change facial expressions and move his head and arms through the mechanism of air pressure. It has an arrow-shaped signal pen in his right hand and a lamp named Reikantō (霊 感 灯, light inspiras ") in his left hand. Perched atop Gakutensoku are bird-shaped robot named Kokukyōchō. When Kokukyōchō cry, Gakutensoku eyes closed and his expression became pensive. when the light shines, Gakutensoku start writing a word with the pen.

2. Acroid Robot

The next robot that Japan made is Acroid Robot.  Actroid is a humanoid robot (technology made ​​have similarities to human form) developed by Osaka University and manufactured by Kokoro Company Ltd.. First introduced in 2003 at the International Robot Exhibition in Tokyo, Japan. Several different versions of the products that have been produced since then. Making robot is created like a young woman descendants of Japan.


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