Thursday, January 31, 2013

Free Download E-Book Control System Fundamentals Second Edition by William S. Levine

Robometricschool. - One again serial e-book that you can use as reference when you study control system is Control System Fundamentals by William S. Levine Second Edition. This book is kind of the control handbook that suitable for you who study control in this day.

Control System Fundamentals e-book is the electrical engineering handbooks series that edited by William S. Levine from University of Maryland  College Park, MD, USA. This book will help you to learn about  control system fundamentals, control system applications, and control system advanced methods. 

This book also allow you to know more Matlab and Simulink application that used in control programming and simulation. Control System Fundamentals E-book divided into several section like in Mathematical Foundations, Model for Dinamic System, Analysis and Design Method for Continuous Time Systems, Digital Control, Analysis and Design Control for Nonlinear Systems. For all section in this book consists of 19 contents. 

To know more about Control Systems Fundamentals E-Book by William S. Levine, you can take free download this book by click link bellow:

We hope E-Book Control Systems Fundamentals E-Book by William S. Levine really will help you to understand control system that very important in this time.

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

Free Download E-Book Instruction Set Microcontroller AVR

Robometricschool. - Get free electronic book (e-book) instruction set microcontroller AVR family in blog. It is free for you who want to learn more about microcontroller AVR that very popular in this day.

As we know that we can make program for microcontroller AVR using assembly and also using C language or also Baskom. You can use one or know all of this programs language for microcontroller that you can use to make program microcontroller AVR.

If you want to program microcontroller AVR using Assembly, you also must know AVR Set Instruction that used to program this microcontroller. Set instruction for microcontroller MCS51 and microcontroller AVR are difference. For example if we want to copy register or data we use MOV in microcontroler MCS51 but we must use LD when we program microcontroller AVR.

So, i think you need more set instruction microcontroller AVR that you must know if you want to program microcontroller AVR. With this set instruction you can make good program  without false when write instruction in your program. 

You can get free download e-book instruction set microcontroller AVR here by click link bellow:

Use e-book instruction set microcontroller AVR as guide you to make good microcontroller AVR program project. (her) 

Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Electronic Circuit Schematic Dimmer LED using LM555 for Photo/Build Light

Robometricschool. - One again electronic circuit schematic that can use to practice to make light is Dimmer LED using LM555 for Build / Photo light. It is simple schematic that you can practice easily to make your own build / photo light.

Figure 1. Schematic Dimmer LED using LM555
(source: rcexplorer)

Maybe you ever use LM555 as timer project before, yes it also nice if you want to make analog timer using LM555. According datasheet LM555 this IC can use for several purpose in electronic project like to adjust timer according time needed.

Figure 2. Blog Diagram LM555
From figure 1 above, we can describe that we can adjust dimmer LED with adjust P1 50K that connected with C1 to make delay time. Output of schematic above is pin number 3 as clock signal as input for NPN transistor. NPN transistor will work like switch that controlled from output signal from pin number 3 LM555. 

You can use all series of NPN transistor like D400, TIP31, etc according the power that you want to turn on and turn off the LED strings. With high power you can make more arrange LED strings more than 9 LED strings. 

You can practice Dimmer LED using LM555 above in small drilling PCB or hole PCB to connected one component to other component. 

Know the System Interrupt Work in Microcontroller MCS-51

Robometricschool. - In this time we want to continue our lesson in section microcontroller, before we have discussed timer and counter in MCS-51, and now we want to continue discuss about system interrupt work in micro-controller MCS-51 family. 

Figure 1. Interrupt System Illustration

Before we continue tell about how interrupt system work, we must know about what is interruption that happen in microcontroller.

Interruption is condition where microcontroller stop while to do the main program and serve interruption program until this program finish to do and microcontroller do again main program. In Microcontroller with interrupts, the program flow can be stopped temporarily to run a subroutine, and then resume normal program flow like never no interruptions. This subroutine is called by the interrupt handler, and only run if there is a special event (event). This incident could be experiencing overflow timer, receiving character through serial port, send characters over the serial port, or one of the two external events.

There are six sources interruption in microcontroller MCS-51 like in AT89C51/52/55 and AT89S51/52/53. Six sources interruption like:

  1. Timer 0. This interruption came from timer 0 pin in microcontroller, it happen because overflow from timer 0.
  2. Timer 1. This interruption came from timer 1 pin in microcontroller, it happen because overflow from timer 1.
  3. serial data. This interruption came from serial data, it happen because received and transmitted in communication data serial.
  4. External 0. This interruption came from pin INT0 in microcontroller, it happen because is change condition in this pin.
  5. External 1. This interruption came from pin INT1 in microcontroller, it happen because is change condition in this pin.
  6. Timer 2 (specially in AT89S52). This interruption came from timer 2 pin in microcontroller specially in AT89S52, it happen because overflow from timer 2.

According source interruption in Microcontroller MCS-51, there are also any six interruption vector like in table 1, bellow:

Table 1. Interruption Vector in MCS-51
According table 1 above there are five Interrupt vector as follow: external interrupt INT0 is $ 0003, for the interrupt timer 0 is $ 000B, for external interrupt INT1 is $ 0013, for the first timer interrupt is $ 001B and to interrupt serial port is $ 0023. Specially for interrupt timer 2 in microcontroller AT89S52 is $002B.

According six source interruption in microcontroller MCS-51, we can set all interruption to active or not-active the interruption.  

When the beginning turned on (power on), all interrupts is disabled. Thus, although TF0 bit is set (timer 0 interrupt enabled), MCS-51 microcontroller will not execute the interrupt routine. A program should be developed and implemented to enable and specify where you want interruptions.

To set interrupt active or non-active, we can set configuration of register interrupt enable (IE register). To know arrange of IE register please see table 2 bellow:

Table 2. Interrupt Enable Register

To set IE register we must know more definition or function for all elements in IE register. To know all you can see table 3 that describe all function of these element in IE register like bellow:

Table 3. Function all elements in IE register

To activate a system interrupt, the interrupt control bit concerned that EA initiated and also set all interrupt sources. For example, the instructions used to activate external interrupt INT0 is SETB EA and then with SETB EX0 followed.

We can place the all source interruption to low and high priority to interrupt. Setting priorities tiers contents do with the bits in the IP register (Interrupt Priority). To know more IP register please see table 4 bellow:

Table 4. Interrupt Priority Register (IP Register)
And to know more function of these elements in Interrupt Priority register (IP register) please see table 5 bellow:

Table 5. Function of all elements in IP register

The use of interrupt priority register (IP Register) above has some rules that are listed below:

  • No interruptions are to interrupt high priority interrupts.
  • High priority interrupts may interrupt a low priority interrupt.
  • Low priority interrupts may occur if no other interrupt is being executed.
  • If two interrupts occur at the same time, interrupt with a higher priority will be done first. If both have the same priority, then the interruption is on the order of the poll will be done first. 


  1. Interrupt in 8051 family
  2. Tutorial interruption 

Sunday, January 27, 2013

Smart Refrigerator using Android from Samsung Help User to Search Recipes Menu

Robometricschool. - Wow, new smart technology from Samsung increasingly pamper users. Now Samsung has been launching new smart refrigerator that equipped with Android operating system. So it make this refrigerator to be smart and joyful to use.

Figure 1. Smart Refrigerator T9000 from Samsung

Using smart refrigerator from Samsung that equipped with Android user can search many recipes menu and make shopping list. Android that used in this smart refrigerator will help user to do this application. This smart refrigerator also can help user to remind users will be the expiration date of food such as milk or yogurt stored in the refrigerator.

Samsung give series this refrigerator with the name refrigerator series T9000. Refrigerator T9000 equipped with touch screen 10 inch with WiFi. With 10-inch screen allows users to still know the latest news, weather, view photos, even from the fridge Twitter newsfeed. T9000 also can replace a handwritten calendar with a Google Calendar integration.

Smart refrigerator T9000, using Epicurious application to know recipes menu and also using Evernote application to write message. With this application, it will make refrigerator T9000 not only to be central of family and kitchen but also like table smartphone and also entertainment this time.

For you who want to take smart refrigerator T9000 from Samsung must be patient because this refrigerator will to sell in the global market for several month again with price more than $4000 USD. 

So you can save your money for several month again to enjoy smart refrigerator T9000 from Samsung from now. (her)   


Saturday, January 26, 2013

Download E-Book Fundamentals of Digital Electronics by Professor Barry Paton from Dalhousie University

Robometricschool. - One again book that you can use as reference to study digital electronic is book that has title Fundamentals of Digital Electronics by Professor Barry Paton from Dalhousie University. And in here you also can get free download this e-book.

Fundamentals of Digital Electronics by Professor Barry Paton book is used to study digital electronic. As we know that digital electronics is one of the fundamental courses found in all electrical engineering and most science programs. The great variety of LabVIEW Boolean and numeric controls/indicators, together with the wealth of programming structures and functions, make LabVIEW an excellent tool to visualize and demonstrate many of the fundamental concepts of digital electronics.

From Fundamentals of Digital Electronics by Professor Barry Paton book consists of labs of digital electronic. There are 12 labs as content of this book. Here are 12 labs in this book likes:

  1. Lab 1: Gates
  2. Lab 2: Encoders and Decoders
  3. Lab 3: Binary Addition
  4. Lab 4: Memory: The D-Latch
  5. Lab 5: Pseudo-Random Number Generators
  6. Lab 6: JK Master-Slave Flip-Flop
  7. Lab 7: Digital-to-Analog Converter
  8. Lab 8: Analog-to-Digital Converters, Part I
  9. Lab 9: Analog-to-Digital Converters, Part II
  10. Lab 10: Seven-Segment Digital Displays
  11. Lab 11: Serial Communications
  12. Lab 12: Central Processing Unit
From e-book of Fundamentals of Digital Electronics by Professor Barry Paton, that this book consist of 82 pages from title page until finish page. In this book also contain of many blog diagram of labs that can used to practice. So, it will make you be nice to enjoy this book. To get free download this book please click link bellow:

Friday, January 25, 2013

Electronic Circuit Schematic Unprogrammable Line Follower Robot using LM324 and TTL 7400

Robometricschool. In this time i will discuss about Line Follower Robot and give you electronic circuit schematic unprogrammable line follower robot using IC LM324 and IC TTL 7400 that you can realize into real line follower robot.

As we know that line follower robot is robot that can move follow the line properly. Can follow line that colored black or colored white according setting of sensor and system robot. Also when we tell about Line Follower Robot, so we can describe into two kinds of line follower robot as like Unprogrammable Line Follower Robot and Programmable Line Follower Robot. 

Unprogrammable Line Follower Robot is line follower robot that design without program like microcontroller program, etc. In real this robot only using sensor system, signal conditioning, digital IC, and driver motor dc. Although simple this robot can follow line as we want before.

It different with unprogrammable line follower robot, programmable line follower robot is designed using special program as like from microcontroller program. So in programmable robot need knowledge to program this robot. Usually we need microcontroller to make program this robot. Maybe in the next time we want to discuss more about this robot.

Back to unprogrammable line follower robot as our topic in this time, we want give you special electronic circuit schematic of this robot that you can use to make line follower without program.  You can see figure 1. bellow as the schematic unprogrammable line follower robot. 

Figure 1. Unprogrammable Line Follower Robot Schematic
(drawing by heru using Orcad software)
From figure 1. above, it show us simple circuit schematic line follower robot without programming that using IC LM324 as sensor signal conditioning and IC TTL 7400 as logic IC that control driver dc motor according signal from sensor.

We said that it simple circuit schematic because consist of few components that easily to get it.  From this circuit, we need LED IR (Light Emitting Diode Infra Red) and Photo Diode to make two line sensor that used in this robot. We also need IC LM324 that consist of several op-amp that used to make sensor signal conditioning that open logic 1 or 0 according sensor detecting. 

Logical 1 or 0 from sensor signal conditioning LM324 is used as input logical signal into TTL 7400 as AND logical. As we know that all input are 1, so it will make TTL 7400 will 1 logic (active). And if all and one of input logically 0 so it will make output TTL 7400 logically 0 (non-active).  

All signal from TTL 7400 will be used to drive the driver motor DC. In this unprogrammable line follower robot schematic use one direction driver DC motor, so we can not make DC motor rotate clock-wise and anti-clock-wise. It will only rotate clock-wise.

Driver DC motor will active to rotate dc motor when get logical 1 and will not active when get logical 0. You only need two transistor D400 and TIP31 to make one direction driver DC motor like in figure 1 above. With simple connection driver dc motor can operate to rotate dc motor properly. 

So, one again you can use electronic circuit schematic unprogrammable line follower robot like in figure 1 to make your own project make line follower robot in first time before you make smart line follower robot that use special microcontroller program. (her)

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Free Download Electronic Software Cadsoft Eagle Professional 6.3.0 Full Version

Figure 1. CADsoft Eagle Professional
(Image Source: xtronic)

Robometricschool. - One again electronic software that you can use to create electronic schematic and PCB design is CADsoft Eagle Professional 6.3.0 full version. With CADsoft Eagle you can draw schematic and make layout PCB design automatic easily. So CADsoft Eagle will be the first your choice when you want to make electronic circuit and design layout PCB manually or automatically.

CADsoft Eagle Professional  is software that made ​​by CadSoft Inc. company. CADsoft Eagle hope can be used to help developers and hobies to draft a series of electronic images. So, CADsoft Eagle is used to draw the design PCB layout for who wrestle hobby electronics, electronics engineering student, lecturer engineering etc, would know or be familiar with this CADsoft Eagle.

When we design with CADsoft Eagle, we can follow two steps like make design schematic diagram and make board. Schematic here are circuits that we design before the next series will be converted into the form of PCB board. So you can enjoy to use CADsoft Eagle to make design electronic schematic and PCB layout automatically or manually.

You can try to use CADsoft Eagle professional with install this software in your PC or laptop, and then you can begin to design electronic circuit and PCB layout. To do it, you can download this software with click link bellow:

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Electronic Circuit DC Motor Driver using H-Bridge MOSFET IRF9540 and IRF540

Robometricschool. - One again that we can design DC motor driver using H-bridge MOSFET. In here we find term about H-Bridge. H-Bridge is a form of hardware network that serves to move the motor.  It is called H-Bridge because the schematic like a bridge that can arrange from MOSFET IRF9540 and IRF540.

Electronic Circuit of DC Motor Driver using MOSFET IRF9540 and IRF540

Figure 1. DC Motor Driver using H-Bridge MOSFET IRF9540 and IRF540

Circuit Performance

According electronic schematic DC Motor Driver using MOSFET IRF9540 and IRF540 like in figure 1 above we know that this schematic using H-Bridge that arrange from two IRF9540 and two IRF540 with input using optocoupler PC123. To know configuration of PC123 you can see figure 2 bellow:

Figure 2. PC123 configuration

IRF9540 is MOSFET channel P and IRF540 is MOSFET channel N that be used to control motor to rotate or not rotate. We can control motor rotate with follow:
  1. Input A = 0 and Input B = 0, motor will not rotate because all MOSFET IRF9540 work and All MOSFET IRF540 not work.
  2. Input A = 1 and Input B = 0, motor will rotate anti clock wise because all MOSFET IRF9540 Q2 and MOSFET IRF540 Q3 work, other MOSFET not work.
  3. Input A = 0 and Input B = 1, motor will rotate clock wise because all MOSFET IRF9540 Q1 and MOSFET IRF540 Q4 work, other MOSFET not work.
  4. Input A = 1 and Input B = 1, motor will not rotate because all MOSFET IRF540 work and All MOSFET IRF9540 not work.
  • With this circuit schematic in figure 1, we get good security although we give same logical in input A and input B.
  • We can get more power with change all MOSFET series according with current that allowed in MOSFET datasheet.

Electronic Circuit Schematic DC Motor Driver using L293D Dual H-Bridge

Robometricschool. - As urgent part, when we want to design robot, driver DC motor can be designed using transistor, FET, and also using Integrated Circuit. One of IC that used to make DC motor driver is L293D as dual H-Bridge DC motor driver

We can use L293D as dc motor driver because we know about L293D datasheet. We know that L293D is L293D is a dual H-Bridge motor driver that consist of two dc motor driver. So with one IC we can interface two DC motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and counter clockwise direction and if you have motor with fix direction of motion the we can make use of all the four I/Os to connect up to four DC motors.  

L293D has output current of 600mA and peak output current of 1.2A per channel. Moreover for protection of circuit from back EMF output diodes are included within the IC L293D. The output supply (VCC2) has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V, which has made L293D a best choice for DC motor driver. To know more physic of IC L293D you can see figure 1 bellow:

Figure 1. L293D Physically

Electronic Schematic of DC Motor Driver using L293D

Figure 2. Schematic of DC Driver Motor using L293D Dual H-Bridge

Electronic Circuit Performance

According electronic schematic of DC driver motor using L293D in figure 2, we can use it to control two DC motor continuously. We can control DC motor one to rotate clock wise and DC motor two to rotate anti clock wise. We also can control all motor to rotate clock wise, anti click wise, or stop all. We can control it with give control in input of L293D. You can use guidance like in figure 3 bellow:

Figure 3. Truth Table to Control L293D DC Motor Driver
From figure 3 above, we can make motor rotate clock wise when in input we give 1 logic in A and 0 logic in B. Also we can make motor rotate anti clock wise when input we give 0 logic in A and 1 logic in B.

We can stop all motor with give in all input 1 logic. Attention you don't give in all input with 0 logic, because it can make L293D error or damage like burn or shot circuit. So careful when you set it. 

In implementation, we can use circuit schematic of DC motor driver using L293D to make driver robot. (Her)

Monday, January 21, 2013

Sand Flea the Jumping Robot for Modern Surveillance Robot

Robometricschool. - There are many robot that design to surveillance in military field. One of the robot that design to scout of enemy is Sand Flea robot. Sand Flea robot designed to compatible for task in military and policy or rescue and can solve the hurdle.

Figure 1. Sand Flea Jumping Robot as Modern Surveillance Robot

Sand Flea robot designed can jump from with high or long jumping. with this characteristic Sand Flea can be used to scout the enemy in war field from far distance. In war, know more information about enemy in very important, when it is do by human it will be dangerous. So robot can use to do this job.

Sand Flea develop by Boston Dynamic, United state to help military. Boston Dynamic in introducing Sand Flea robot, hopes that Sand Flea robot can be an alternative to help the American soldiers lurking and also get information about the enemy.  

Because it is used in the world wars, modern surveillance robot, named Sand Flea has a lot of ability. Sand Flea robot having ability like able to jump at a height of 10 meters and landed safely. This is because the Sand Flea uses the stability system to keep himself steady when just high enough to make the leap.

Although Sand Flea robot design with simple form, but this robot completed with on-board video system that is capable of displaying visual data remotely. Robot with weight 4.9 kg and long 33 cm also can keeping the U.S. troops to remain in a safe range while getting important information from the enemy.

Sand Flea robot also designed because speed of cheetah inspiration. Sand Flea can jump more than 10 meters using leg power. Sand Flea as Modern surveillance robot was also able to swim it has enough gas in her that could be used to perform 25 times the leap. To know action of Sand Flea robot you can click video link bellow: 

Building Transformer Robot from Remote Control Car

Robometricschool. - Developing of robot technology in this time is very fast. Not only robot in industry, but also robot that used as game or toys. Like in transformer robot in the movie, real transformer robot realized as robot toys that building from remote control car or RC car.

Figure 1. RC Car that can Change into Transformer Robot

Kenji Ishida, that having hobbies to building transformer robot from japan realize transformer robot that build from RC car. Previous robot shaped transformers sedan into a robot like the one in the movie transformers. This transformer robot formed from RC car that change into transformer robot. So it is very nice to displayed.

Kenji Ishida realize the transformer robot like in transformer robot in the movie. When shaped robot, the entire hand or foot function robot can function perfectly like a real robot as in the sci-fi genre films such. One again movement of this transformer robot can be operated use remote control. We can operate this robot to walk and dance use remote control.

Figure 2. Transformer Robot Version 8

Kenji Ishida introduces transformer robot as robot transformer version 8th. It is show us that this robot is not the first of Kenji's transformer robot. He has been improving this robot more than 4 years. 

In transformer version 8th, Kenji Ishida use 8 servo motor to smooth movement of transformation of creation of the car to robot form, or other movements such as walking. So, it is nice transformer robot in this time. To know more about Building Transformer Robot from Remote Control Car or Transformer Version 8th Video you can click link bellow:

Sunday, January 20, 2013

Electronic Circuit Schematic Analog to Frequency Converter using KA331 and Optocoupler PC123

Robometricschool.- The next electronic circuit diagram that i will show to you is Analog to Frequency Converter (AFC) using KA331 and optocoupler PC123 as alternative of Analog to Digital Converter ADC.

Like commonly that if you want to change analog signal to digital signal usually use ADC or Analog to Digital Converter to convert analog signal into digital signal and then you can processed this signal using microcontroller to do another form.

In here i want to give you special circuit schematic of analog to frequency converter using KA331 and also optocoupler PC 123 like in figure 1. bellow:

Figure 1. Analog to Frequency Converter using KA331 and PC123
Drawing use PCB Wizard software by Robometricschool

According electronic circuit schematic above, we use IC KA331 to convert analog signal to frequency signal. From KA331 datasheet we know that KA331 is analog voltage to frequency converter provides the output pulse train at a frequency precisely proportional to the applied input voltage. The KA331 also can operate at power supplies as low as 4.0V and be changed output frequency from 1Hz to 100KHz. It is ideally suited for use in simple low-cost circuit for analog-to digital conversion, long term integration, linear frequency modulation or demodulation, frequency-to-voltage conversion, and many other functions.

Input of circuit schematic of analog voltage to frequency using KA331 and PC123 is DC small analog voltage that will connected in pin 7 as input KA331. Output of this IC is Pulse output compatible with all logic form with wide dynamic range: 100dB min at 10KHz full scale frequency. We can adjust output signal using VR1 50Kohm, if you change VR1 with smaller value so the output range will be narrow than using VR1 50K ohm.

To get good output digital signal frequency we can use PC123 as optocoupler IC that will make input signal more good digital signal and make signal more stability. To know more about IC PC123 you can see PC123 datasheet.

From Electronic Circuit Schematic Analog to Frequency Converter using KA331 and Optocoupler PC123 like in figure 1 above can be used in application like temperature signal condition, frequency counter, etc.

Maybe i will show you next time project that using Analog to Frequency Converter using KA331 and Optocoupler PC123 like in electronic circuit schematic figure 1 above as used to make digital termometer using LM35. please wait.(her)

Saturday, January 19, 2013

Download E-Book Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition by Nashelsky, Robert Boylestad

Robometricschool. - One again e-book that can used as reference for electronic basic engineer is Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory that written by Nashelsky and Robert Boylestad. This book is basic electronic that show us discussion about electronic devices and circuit theory.