## Sunday, December 23, 2012

### Automatic Garden Lamp Simple Electronic Circuit Schematic for Turn-on and Turn-off Lamp Automatically

 Figure 1. Circuit Schematic and PCB Layout Automatic Garden Lamp
Robometricschool. - Maybe someone today need everything more easy and effective, included with their garden lamp at home. There are many garden lamp operated manually to turn-on and turn-off. Someone need to turn on in the night and turn off in the morning manually. Garden lamp can not work automatically, when condition is dark garden lamp will turn on and when condition is bright garden lamp will turn off automatically too.

I think it is very important in this day. Someone will not again confuse when they go to leave home who will turn on and turn off garden lamp. To take solution for this problem i think someone can use automatically garden lamp that can work automatically. Garden lamp will turn on when condition is dark, and garden lamp will turn off when condition is bright.

To solve this problem robometricschool present Automatic Garden Lamp Electronic Circuit Schematic to Turn on and Turn off lamp automatically. With this simple electronic circuit schematic of automatic garden lamp you can realize this schematic for real sequence. It is because i give you free schematic circuit and PCB layout from here.

 Figure 2. Simple Circuit Schematic Automatic Garden Lamp

From figure 2. above we can describe some components of Automatic Garden Lamp as follow:
1. BR1 ------------------------> Bridge Diode for min 2 A
2. R1 --------------------------> 2.2 M ohm
3. R2 --------------------------> LDR (Light Dependent Resistor)
4. SCR1 ---------------------> FIR 3D
note:
you can adjust value of R1 to get good performance of sensor LDR, if in your practice with 2.2 M ohm still turn on the lamp you can add value of R1 with the large of 2.2 M ohm.

From the circuit schematic of automatic garden lamp we want to describe several function and performance of the circuit schematic as follow:
1. BR1 is used  as rectifier of VAC 220 volt to DC 220 volt. And it will charge the other components.
2. R1 and R2 is used as voltage divider. R2 is LDR that resistance will change when LDR in the dark or bright condition. And then it will change voltage in R2 as input of gate SCR or thyristor. If VR2 is too small SCR will close circuit and VR2 is high SCR will open circuit.
3. SCR or Thyristor is operated with DC voltage 220 DC and will operate like electronic switch with triggered from gate. SCR will open and close depend of voltage from gate terminal.
4. If the circuit and schematic connected with lamp (bulb lamp) and source voltage 220 VAC it will make lamp turn-on and turn-off automatically depend of dark or bright condition.
5. Note: capacities of bulb lamp  depending of SCR capacities and diode bridge. In practical this circuit only suitable for bulb lamp not Tube Light lamp.

If you interesting with this circuit schematic of automatic garden lamp and want to modified the schematic or PCB layout, we provide you original file of Schematic and Layout PCB that you can download freely.

 Figure 3. Design PCB Layout Circuit Automatic Garden Lamp
To open this file you can use PCB Wizard software, because we design schematic and PCB layout using PCB Wizard. Figure 3 is sample of PCB Layout that we generated using auto route  from PCB Wizard. You also can take Free Download Software PCB Wizard from here.

## Saturday, December 22, 2012

### Free Electronic Software Download PCB Wizard Easily to Make Electronic Circuit and PCB Layout

 Figure 1. Electronic Software PCB Wizard
Robometricschool. - One again electronic software that can to use make electronic circuit or schematic and to make PCB design layout is PCB Wizard. Using PCB Wizard you can make electronic circuit schematic and PCB layout very easily. Also you can auto-route your electronic circuit schematic to the PCB layout automatically. It is very interesting. From robometricschool blog you can take free download PCB wizard software freely.

When you install PCB Wizard easily, you will get two application of PCB Wizard these is PCB Wizard and Livewire. PCB Wizard application used to design PCB Layout easily and Livewire used to design or drawing electronic circuit schematic easily. But if you use PCB Wizard application, you also can use it to design electronic circuit schematic easily with change PCB Component Gallery to  Circuit Component Gallery as feature of PCB Wizard.

With feature Auto-route in PCB Wizard you can change your electronic circuit schematic to PCB layout automatically. But, if you want not to make PCB layout automatically you also can design PCB layout manually.

To easy using PCB Wizard and Livewire application you will be helped with tutorial about how to use PCB Wizard and Livewire application. You only open menu help and open tutorial in PCB Wizard or in Livewire application. Using tutorial, you will get guidance how to begin design electronic circuit schematic and how to design PCB layout manually or automatically. You can see figure 2 and figure 3 to see more first tutorial in PCB Wizard and Livewire.

 Figure 2. PCB Wizard Tutorial
 Figure 3. Liveware Tutorial

I think you only need few time to install PCB Wizard in your computer or Laptop after you take free download PCB Wizard. Fore more you can follow instruction bellow:
2. Open folder temping by click it several click, and then you will find livewire y pcb wizard.exe file for application. please install file with double click this file.
3. Follow step-by-step installing process until finish.
4. After finish you can find two shortcut in your computer or laptop.
5. PCB Wizard and Livewire application ready to use.

## Friday, December 21, 2012

### Katsura Beicho Robot the Android Robot from Japan

 Figure 1. Katsura Beicho Robot and Real Katsura Beicho
Robometricschool. - Recent robotic technology came from Osaka, Japan. Robotic technology seems to be identical with the country of Japan. There may be some truth to the Japanese icon of robotic technology development, as many developing robotic technology from Japanese State. As new robot created by experts from the Japanese professor Hiroshi Ishiguro makes robots similar to humans, known as the latest android robot.

This latest android robot like a grandfather. Robot latest android is a robot made ​​Osaka University, which is almost like a human.

There is a distinct impression why the latest android robot from Japan was formed in view grandfathers. For the author, Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro had the idea to make the android that can display Japanese culture. Working closely with various parties, including the make-up artist, Hiroshi made ​​a replica of a famous Japanese comedian named Katsura Beicho.

People who are well known as a storyteller comedy or in Japanese it is called Rakugo Arts. Because the high-finesse Beicho rakugo nothing can replace, as well as who has reached the age of 86 years, the art is to be preserved by Professor Hiroshi.

Robot android formed to view this grandfather has spent about 80 million yen. At the time of its release, this android Beicho be placed with its original character, Katsura Beicho.

Of course it was a special experience for Beicho when he can see a replica of herself. And of course very interesting.

## Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Robometricschool. - Let's make your electronic schematic and circuit simulation easily with Proteus 7.1 SP 2. Using Proteus 7.1 you also can create PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Easily. This software like suitable for you who like in electronic design and hobbies.
Proteus is a software for PCB design that also equipped with a simulation p-spice schematic level before the circuit schematic upgraded to the PCB, we will know whether PCB that we will print is correct or not. Proteus combine ISIS program to create a schematic design of the circuit with the ARES program for making PCB layout from schematic that we make.

used to design good microcontroller circuit. Proteus 7.1 SP 2 is also good to learn basic electronics such as electronics to the application microcontroller.

or

Proteus 7.1 SP2 Full

### The Basic Concepts of Fuzzy Logic

 Figure 1. Boolean Logic vs Fuzzy Logic Difference Illustration

Robometricschool. - Lots of control systems at the moment who want the output to have high accuracy, so that the control system requires a fairly complex system. With the fuzzy logic system then we do not need a very complex control system.

Fuzzy logic system first discovered by Prof.. Lotfi Zadeh in the mid-1960s at the University of California. This system was created for Boolean logic does not have high precision, only to have a logic 0 and 1 only. So as to make the system has a high accuracy, we can not use the Boolean logic.

Furthermore, Prof.. Lotfi Zadeh Fuzzy Logic says that integration into information systems and engineering processes are generating applications such as control systems, household appliance, and system decision makers more flexible, stable, and powerful than conventional systems. In this case we can say that the fuzzy logic engine lead in the development of higher intelligence (machine Intelligency Quotient / MIQ).

Fuzzy Logic is a rise of Boolean logic dealing with the concept of partial truth. When classical logic to claim that everything can be expressed in terms of binary (0 or 1, black or white, yes or no), fuzzy logic replaces Boolean truth with a level of truth. As an illustration to tell the difference between a Boolean fuzzy logic as shown in figure 1 above.

From the example of figure 1 above, we know that when the temperature was at 75 ° so that the system will first be confused as boundary conditions for cold <75 and heat conditions> 75 °, in fuzzy logic, a temperature of 75 ° can be expressed with 00:50 and 12:50 hot winter. 0:50 Taking the value derived from this process will be explained in fuzzification process.

To facilitate the basic concepts of fuzzy logic, it can be described by the following figure 2 bellow:

 Figure 2. Basic Concepts in Fuzzy Logic System Diagram

• Degree of membership
The function of the degree of membership is to give weight to the input we have given, so that input can be expressed in value earlier. Also be interpreted as the degree to which the values ​​compatible with crisp membership function (from 0 to 1), also referred to as the level of membership, the truth value, or input fuzzy instance temperature is cold, with the degree of membership that cold temperatures can have a value eg 0 , 5. Limit of degree of membership is from 0-1.

• Scope / Domain
Scope / Domain is the width of the membership function or a boundary of a particular set of inputs. The range of concepts, usually numbers, where membership functions mapped. For example, cold temperatures are from 10-50 degrees, very quickly is from 200-500 rpm.

• Label
A label is a descriptive name used to identify the membership function. It can also be interpreted as a word - the word to give a statement on the Scope / Domain. For example: heat, cold, fast, very fast, etc.

• Membership Function
A that represents the shape of a boundary of scope / domain. In other words that define the fuzzy membership functions are set with crisp mapping input from domain to degrees of membership.

• Crisp Input
It is firm and certain inputs such as analog input value that we provide to find degree of membership.

• Universe of discourse
Limit input we have given in designing a fuzzy system. This limit is different from the limit of scope / domain. Universe of discourse is the limit all the inputs to be provided while the scope / domain is a boundary that determines that the input is expressed heat, cold, fast, etc.

In the fuzzy logic system, there are three kinds of processes are carried out, namely Fuzzification, Rule evaluation and Defuzification. Here's an explanation of each process.
• Fuzzification
This process serves to change the scale analog input fuzzy. Fuzzification means changing inputs are definite truth value (crisp input) into the form of fuzzy input. Please view figure 3 bellow:

 Figure 3. Fuzzification Process

• Membership Function
This process serves to to look for a value of fuzzy input fuzzy output.The process is as follows: a fuzzy input values ​​from the fuzzification process and then inserted into a rule that was created to serve as a fuzzy output. Please view figure 4 bellow:

 Figure 4. Rule Evaluation Process

• Defuzzicication
Defuzzification means changing the fuzzy output into crisp value based on predetermined membership functions. This process serves to determine a crisp output value.

 Figure 5. Defuzzification Process

There are many defuzzification methods that have been successfully applied to a wide range of issues, here discussed five of these methods, namely:
1. Centroid method.
2. Height method.
3. First (or Last) of Maxima
4. Mean-Max method
5. Weighted Average
Before defuzzification, to do the composition, the aggregate results of all clipping fuzzy rules to obtain a single fuzzy set.

## Tuesday, December 18, 2012

### Programming Timer and Counter in AT89S51/52 Part 2

 Figure 1. Timer 1 in Work Mode 2

Robometricschool. - We will to continue our discussion about programming timer and counter in AT89S51/52 in part 2. In programming timer and counter in AT89S51/52 part 1, we discussed about basically, features, work mode, and register timer and counter in AT89S51/52. In part 2, we will continue to discuss programming timer and counter about how to setting timer and counter in AT89S51/52.

Lets to attention figure 1 above, figure 1 is a schematic circuit arrangement that could happen to Timer 1 is complete, also described the relationships forming and control registers Timer 1. This figure applies to Timer 0.
In actual use, the circuit consumes only part of a complete, in accordance with the purposes of the system is built. Desired circuit formed by setting registers TMODE, while the work of the timer is controlled through register TCON.
After MCS51 register is reset 00H TMOD value, this means:
• bit C / T * = '0 ', according to Figure 42 situation makes the switch S1 to the top, the source pulse signal from the crystal oscillator whose frequency is divided by 12, which is formed by a binary counter TL1 and TH1 serves as a timer. If you really want a system that is designed to work as a timer Timer 1 then bits C / T * do not need to be set again. But if the system is designed calls for Timer 1 works as a counter to count the pulses coming through kakai T1 (P3.5), the position of the switch S1 must to down by making bits C / T * to '1 '.
• GATE bit = '0 ', it makes the output of the OR gate is always '1' is not influenced state '0 'or '1' on foot INT1 (P3.3). In these circumstances, the switch S2 is only controlled through TR1 bit in TCON register. If TR1 = '1 'switch S2 is closed so that the signal is transmitted to the pulse of the S1 counter binary system, the pulse signal flow will be stopped if TR = '0'. Conversely, if the bit GATE = '1 ', the output of the OR gate will follow the state of INT1 feet, when INT1 = '0' bit TR1 whatever the state of the AND gate output is always = '0 'and switch S1 is always open, so that the switch can be closed S1 foot INT1 and TR1 bit must = '1 'simultaneously.
If the job requires a system designed from the timer / counter control of signals from outside the chip, then it should be made into the GATE bit '1 'bits M1 and M0 = '0', the TL1 and TH1 compiled into 13-bit binary counter (Mode 0 ), if desired Timer 1 works in mode 1 as shown in figure 1, the bit M1 should be made into a '0 'and bits M0 be '1 '.

The time delay is widely used in  microcontroller programming to generate pulses, generating a periodic signal with a certain frequency, to eliminate the effect of vibration scalar in making key pad (simple keyboard) and others.

The time delay can be generated simply by running instructions implementation time can be calculated with precision. To get a long delay time, do not use the above but use the timer. The time delay is formed by both methods is highly dependent on the microcontroller operating frequency, the following examples are considered microcontroller works at a frequency of 12 MHz. These instructions can be used to generate pulses '0 'with a width of 3 micro-seconds on foot P1.0.

01: CLR P1.0
02: NOP              ; 1 micro-second
03: NOP              ; 1 micro-second
04: SETB P1.0   ; 1 micro-second

The first line of the instructions make the early P1.0 '1 'to '0', the implementation of the NOP instruction takes 1 micro-second (if MCS51 works at a frequency of 12 MHz), P1.0 SETB instruction also takes 1 micro-second , total time before P1.0 back to '1 'is 3 micro-seconds (lines 2, 3 and 4).

From this discuss you can improve your ability to use timer and counter in AT89S51/52 to other application.

### Programming Timer and Counter in AT89S51/52 Part 1

 Figure 1. Timer and Counter in AT89S51/52

Robometricschool. - In this time i want to discuss about programming timer and counter in AT89S51/52 part 1. From this discussing you will understand about basically, features, working mode and register timer and counter in AT89S51/52.

Basically, this input device is a binary counter (binary counter) that is connected directly to the microcontroller-data, so that the microcontroller can read the position of the counter, if necessary microcontroller can also change the position of the counter.

With timer and counter, user can use it to measure pulse width, pulse width evoke a definite, used in the control voltage is PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) and is necessary for applications with infrared remote control.

Like a binary counter, when the signal pulse (clock) that fed it exceeds the counter, then at the end of the message counter will arise overflow signal, this signal is an important thing in using the enumerator. The overflow counter is recorded in a flip-flop itself. In addition, the pulse signal which is fed to the counter should also be controlled easily.

 Figure 2. Basically Timer/ Counter AT89S51/52

From figure 1 above we know that pulse signal which is fed to the counter can be divided into two types, the first is a fixed frequency pulse signal is already known that both the magnitude and the frequency of the pulse signal is not fixed.

If a counter works with fixed frequencies of known magnitude, it is said to work as a timer counter, because the position of the counter is equivalent to the time that can be determined with certainty.

If a counter works with no fixed frequency, said enumerators worked as a counter, the counter position is simply stating the number of pulses that are received counter.

String binary counter is used, can be an ascending binary counter (count up binary counter) or binary down counter (count down binary counter).

Timer / Counter as a means of input are often found in the microcontroller, such as family microcontrollers MCS48, MCS51 or MC68HC11 family all have a Timer / Counter on the chip as a means of input. In addition it can also be found chip Timer / Counter that stands alone as supporting the work of microprocessors, such as 8253/8254 programmable Interval Timer made ​​by Intel, or MC6840 Programmable Counter / Timer made by Motorola.

MCS51 microcontroller families such as AT89C51 or AT89S51 , comes with two sets of Timer / Counter, respectively named as Timer 0 and Timer 1. As for the larger types, such as AT89S52, has added a set Timer / Counter again named as Timer 2.

Devices Timer / Counter is the hardware into one chip microcontroller in MCS51, MCS51 microcontroller for the user device known as SFR (Special Function Register) which serves as a memory-internal data.

Counting binary for Timer 0 TL0 register is formed by (Timer 0 Low Byte, memory-internal data 6AH number) and register TH0 (Timer 0 High Byte, memory-internal data 6CH numbers).

Counting binary for Timer 1 registers formed with TL1 (Timer 1 Low Byte, memory-internal data 6BH number) and register TH1 (Timer 1 High Byte, memory-internal data 6DH numbers).

Shaper Binary Counting Timer / Counter MCS51 an ascending binary counter (count up binary counter) that counts up from 0000H to FFFFH, the current position of the enumerator changed from 0000H to FFFFH back to signal an overflow will occur.

To regulate Timer / Counter used two additional registers that are shared by Timer 0 and Timer 1. Additional registers are registers TCON (Timer Control Register, the number of internal data memory-88H, the address can be a bit) and register TMOD (Timer Mode Register, the number of internal data memory-89H).

TL0, TH0, TL1 and TH1 is a SFR (Special Function Register) is used to form the binary counter Timer 0 and Timer 1. The capacity of the four registers each of 8 bits, can be arranged into 4 kinds of mode binary counter as shown in Figure 40a to Figure 40d.

In Mode 0, Mode 1 and Mode 2 Timer 0 and Timer 1 each work alone, that could be made to work on Timer 0 Timer 1 Mode 1 and Mode 2 work on, or a combination of other modes as appropriate.

In Mode 3 TL0, TH0, TL1 and TH1 used together to construct a system timer that can not be other combinations.
• Mode 0 - 13-bit binary counter
 Figure 3. Mode 0 - 13-bit binary counter

Counting binary formed by TLx (TL0 or TL1 could mean) as a 5-bit binary counter (although actual capacity of 8 bits), an abundance of 5-bit binary counter is connected to the THx (the idea is TH0 or TH1) to form a string of 13-bit binary counter, overflow of 13-bit counter is housed in a flip-flop TFX (that could TF0 or TF1), which is in register TCON.
This fashion forward means the timer is on MCS48 microcontroller (microcontroller MCS51 predecessor), with the intent of the design tool created by MCS48 can be easily adapted to MCS51. This mode is not much use anymore.
• Mode 1 - 16 bit binary counter
 Figure 4. Mode 1 - 16-bit binary counter

This mode is the same as Mode 0, except that registers TLx fully used as an 8-bit binary counter, so the capacity of the binary counter is 16 bits tersbentuk. Along with the pulse signal, the position of 16-bit binary counter will move from 0000H (binary 0000 0000 0000 0000), 0001H, 0002H ... to FFFFH (binary 1111 1111 1111 1111), then overflow back to 0000H.
• Mode 2 - 8-bit binary counter with Refills
 Figure 5. Mode 2 - 8-bit binary counter with refills

TLX is used as an 8-bit binary counter, while THX used to store the values ​​entered into TLX repeat, each time position TLX overflows (changes from FFH to be 00H). In this way the signal can be recovered spill frequency is determined by the value stored in TH0.
• Mode 3 - Combined Binary Counter 16-bit and 8 Bit
 Figure 6. Mode 3 - Combined Binary Counter 16-bit and 8-Bit

In Mode 3 TL0, TH0, TL1 and TH1 used to form the three strands of the counter, the first is the string of 16-bit binary counter without overflow signal monitoring facility established with TL1 and TH1. The second is TL0 used as 8-bit binary counter with overflow TF0 as a means of monitoring. The third binary enumerator TH0 used as 8-bit binary counter with overflow TF1 as a means of monitoring.

Register TMOD and TCON registers a helper to set the working register Timer 0 and Timer 1, the second register is shared by the Timer 0 and Timer 1.

TMOD Register
 Figure 7. TMOD Register

TMOD register is divided into 2 parts by simitris, bits 0 to 3 TMOD register (TMOD TMOD bits bits 0 .. 3) is used to set the Timer 0, bits 4 to 7 TMODE register (TMOD TMOD bits bits 4 .. 7) is used to adjust timer 1, use the following:
• Bit M0/M1 used to determine the Timer Mode as seen in the table in Figure 41a.
• Bit C / T * is used to set the pulse signal source is fed to a binary counter. If C / T * = 0 pulse signal obtained from a crystal oscillator whose frequency is divided by 12, whereas if C / T * = 1, the signal obtained from a foot pulse T0 (for Timer 0) or T1 leg (for Timer 1).
• GATE Bit is a bit regulator channel pulse signal. When GATE = 0 channel bit pulse signal is only governed by bit TRx (that is TR0 or TR1 in register TCON). When GATE = 1 foot bit INT0 (for Timer 0) or foot INT1 (for Timer 1) is also used to set the pulse signal line.
TCON Register
 Figure 8. TCON Register
TCON register is divided into two parts, the first 4 bits (bit 0 .. bit 3, the shaded section in Figure 41b) is used for the purposes set foot INT0 and INT1, all four of these bits is discussed in other parts.
The remaining 4 bits of TCON register (bits 4 .. bit 7) is divided into 2 sections are used to regulate
symmetric Timer0/Timer 1, as follows:
• Bit TFX (that is TF0 or TF1) is a bit reservoir overflow (see Figure 40), TFX will be a '1 'whenever a binary counter connected to them abundant (enumerator position changes from FFFFH back to 0000H). TFX-zero bits in the CLR with istruksi TF0 or CLR TF1. If the vehicle timer interrupt 0/Timer first used, TRx-zero at the time AT89S51 runs interrupt service routine (ISR - interrupt service routines).
• Bit TRx (that is TR0 or TR1) is a bit regulator channel pulse signal, when this bit = 0 pulse signal is not transmitted to the binary counter so that the counter stops counting. When the GATE bit in register TMOD = 1, then the channel pulse signal is governed jointly by the TRx and signals on INT0/INT1.
Let Continue to Part 2 :

Writing  by : Budhy Sutanto